History of Flight from Around the World
Since some thirty years many publications, first in the United States, later also in Europe, described remarkable intellectual contributions of Austrians in the period from 1867 until 1938. Consequently it became more widely known, that the so-called 'Vienna 1900' - phenomenon referred not only to important achievements in music, fine art, literature and psychology, but also in philosophy, economics or physics.
However, it is a much less common knowledge, that in this very period - especially in the first decades of this now ending century - Austrians also played quite a prominent role in the pioneer phase of rocketry. Whilst only relatively few of the ideas of these pioneers were realized in their home country, an important part of today's space applications and concepts can be traced back to the first blueprint created by these men.
I hope the following short biographies will help draw the attention of a wider public to this historic aspect of space exploration and rocketry. Dr. Caspar Einem, Former Austrian Federal Minister for Science and Transport
Biographies courtesy of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Space Technology Centre (ESTEC) fine arts club. The author of the biographies, Bruno P. Besser, works at the Space Research Institute Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, a-8042 Graz, Austria -- e-mail: email@example.com
Born 1905 in Prebnitz, Bohemia (now flooded in the Prisecnice Lake, Czech Republic), Died 1964 in Berlin.
Eugen Sänger first studied civil engineering at the University of Technology in Graz, but after reading Hermann Oberth's (see Pioneer Profile) book about space travel he changed to the field of aeronautics at the University of Technology Vienna. It was impossible for him to graduate with a thesis on rockets so instead he wrote one about experimental airfoil design and graduated in 1931.
In 1932 he started to establish a test-bed for rocket engines at the University of Technology Vienna, where he worked as an assistant researcher and developed and experimented on different designs of combustion chambers.
His famous book Raketenflugtechnik (Rocket Flight Engineering) was published in 1933. This was the first book on rocketry from an academic professional. His experimental success in designing rocket engines led to engagement as head of his development center for jet engines in Trauen, Germany, in 1936.
During World War II he experimented with designs for combustion chambers providing a thrust of up to 100 tons and designs of jet propulsion. Together with his wife Irene Sänger-Bredt, he worked out the detailed plans for a horizontally starting and landing rocket space plane, which could transport a one ton payload into orbit. This so-called "Silbervogel" (Silver Bird) was the prototype of a subsequent series of designs of horizontally starting and landing space planes. In honor of his achievements the German proposal for a next generation space plane is named "Sänger II". It consists of an airplane for reaching higher altitudes plus the piggyback rocket plane.
After the war he worked for the French government and he was one of the founders of the International Astronautical Federation in 1951. He served as its first president. After 1954 he worked as a professor for jet propulsion in Berlin, Germany.
Born 1892 in Pola, Austria (now Pula, Croatia), Died 1929 in Vienna.
Herman Potocnik, educated at various military schools in the Austrian-Hungarian Empire was appointed second lieutenant at the military college of Mödling near Vienna in 1913. After serving in a railway corps during the First World War he studied and graduated from electrical engineering at the University of Technology in Vienna.
In 1928 Potocnik worked out a detailed technical design of a space station and published it in 1929 in a book called "Das Problem der Befahrung des Weltraums - der Raketenmotor" (The Problem of Space Travel - The Rocket Motor) under his pen name Hermann Noordung.
His space station consisted of up to three modules: the "Wohnrad" (Inhabitable Wheel), the power station and the observatory. The modules would be connected by cables. The inhabitable wheel has the form of a giant wheel and rotates to simulate gravity in the living areas. On top of the wheel there would be parabolic mirrors mounted to concentrate the solar radiation for the power supply through a heat engine power station. Potocnik worked out all the necessary equipment for his space station in great detail. A very similar concept of a space station design has been proposed by Wernher von Braun in 1953.
Herman Potocnik also describes in his book how a satellite could be positioned such to be visible all day long from a very spot on Earth, namely about 36,000 kilometers above the equator. Today satellites in this geostationary orbit play an important role for telecommunications and weather forecasting.
Herman Potocnik died of pneumonia caught during the war, shortly after the publication of his book in Vienna.
Guido von Pirquet
Born 1880 in Hirschstetten (now part of Vienna), Died 1966 in Vienna.
Guido von Pirquet studied mechanical engineering at the Universities of Technology in Vienna and Graz. He was a member of a distinguished Austrian family; his brother Clemens was a worldwide renowned physician.
His expertise in ballistics and thermodynamics made him a notable personality in the rocket circles. He got elected first secretary of the rocket society founded by Franz von Hoefft.
His most important contributions in the field of rocketry were his article about the possible concepts of space travel in his book "Die Möglichkeit der Weltraumfahrt" (The Possibility of Space Travel) edited by the young German Willi Ley in 1928 and his series of articles about interplanetary trajectories (to Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn) in the journal "Die Rakete" (The Rocket) of the "Verein fur Raumschiffahrt" (German Rocket Society), the worlds largest rocket society at the time.
Through the calculations of a rocket nozzle for a manned rocket to planet Mars, he realized that the rocket needed to lift-off directly from earth would be too large, the nozzle area of the first stage being about 1500 square meter, to be technically feasible. He concluded that a manned expedition to Mars could only be accomplished by building a space station in earth's orbit, where the space ship for travel to Mars could be assembled.
His calculated trajectory (published in 1928) for a space probe to reach Venus is identical to the one use by the first Soviet interplanetary spacecraft to Venus in 1961.
Franz Abdon Ulinski
Born 1890 in Blosdorf, Moravia (now Mljadejov, Czech Republic), Died 1974 in Wels (Austria).
In 1910, after attending secondary school in Linz, Austria, Franz Abdon Ulinski joined the army of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. He served in different positions before the First World War and as technical officer in the aviation corps during the war. Around 1919 he proposed the design of a spacecraft, propelled by a jet of electrons (or ions). A year later, he published his ideas in a journal of aeronautics in Vienna. Two types of energy supply were proposed, firstly using solar panels for energy accumulation and secondly disintegration of atoms. His ideas for propulsion of a spacecraft were ahead of his time and were not taken seriously. One reason was certainly the magnitude of the energy needed to leave the gravitation of the Earth using such a spacecraft. Nevertheless, his concept proves to be of importance for manned space travel to other planets, namely as an economical way of transport where launching is performed from a station already in Earth orbit.
The technological advancement has taken some time but not long ago a spacecraft using ion thrusters was put into space to demonstrate the concept. Deep Space One will fly by an asteroid before its trajectory brings it close to a comet. Another application for ion thrusters is the stabilization of satellites in Earth orbit.
Born 1895 in Bozen, Tyrol. Died 1930 in Berlin.
Max Valier was very interested in astronomy during his youth. After attending secondary school and in parallel working as an unpaid trainee in a precision mechanics workshop, he started in 1913 to study astronomy, mathematics and physics at the University of Innsbruck. After serving in the aviation unit of the Austro-Hungarian Army during the First World War, he resumed his studies in Vienna and Munich, but never graduated and worked as a writer on scientific subjects.
After reading Oberth's (see Hermann Oberth's Pioneer Profile) book in 1923 he felt compelled to write (with Oberth's help) a popular book on the subject, "Der Vorstoß in den Weltenraum" (Advance Into Space) which was published in 1924 and was written in a non-technical language. Six editions went into print until 1930.
Valier proposed an evolutionary program to advance rocketry, which consisted of four stages:
- Test-bed experiments
- Rocket-powered vehicles (cars, railcars, sledges and gliders)
- Rocket-assisted airplanes
- Increase of airplane performance up to rocket-propelled space ship.
Valier's rocket car, rocket railcar, rocket sledge and rocket glider experiments using solid fuel rockets obtained very large publicity in Germany. Some of the experiments were done in collaboration with Fritz von Opel, the owner of the German Opel car factory.
Around 1929-1930 he started to experiment with liquid fuel rockets but was killed in an accident during one of the test-bed experiments on May 17, 1930 in Berlin, when the rocket combustion chamber explode.
Franz von Hoefft
Born 1882 in Vienna, Died 1954 in Linz.
Franz von Hoefft studied Chemistry at the University of Technology in Vienna and the University Göttingen and graduated at the Vienna University in 1907 with a thesis on physical chemistry. He worked as an engineer for furnaces in Donawitz, as a tester at the Austrian Patent Office and as a consultant.
During the twenties several rocket societies were founded, which contributed a lot in spreading the idea of rocketry. Dr. Hoefft founded in 1926 the first space related society in Western Europe, the "Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaft fŸr Höhenforschung" (The Scientific Society for High Altitude Research) in Vienna.
Hoefft, an expert of rocket fuels, proposed a noteworthy development. The first step was the development of a liquid-fuel sounding rocket called RH-1 (RH meaning Repulsion Hoefft). The rockets would be transported by balloons up to the height of 5 to 10 kilometers, where they would be launched. Such rockets could be used for rocket mail and for photographic remote sensing of he Earth. The capacity of the rockets would be advances till the last step in the development, the space ship RH-VIII. One of the intermediate steps, the manned spacecraft RH-V, would fly around the Earth in ellipses. The special form of the RH-V should make it possible to take off and land on water by skids and fly within the atmosphere as an airplane and above the atmosphere as a rocket. RH-V could also be used as the upper stage of RH-VI to RH-VIII, which would be launched from a space station and could be used to reach other planets or even leave our solar system. But Hoefft never had the opportunity to promote his visionary program by practical contributions.
Born approx. 1509 in Dornbach (now part of Vienna) Died 1579 in Hermannstadt, Transylvania
Not very many details about the life of Conrad Haas are known. He was born in Dornbach, near Vienna. He served as an artillery guard and commissioned officer of the Imperial court of Vienna. In this function he probably came in 1551 with Imperial troops to Transylvania and became chief of the artillery camp of the arsenal of Hermannstadt.
Between 1529 and 1569 he wrote the above-mentioned manuscript which seems to be among other things the very first description of the principle of a multi stage rocket. He describes and depicts rockets with two and three stages, talks about bundling of rockets, stabilizing fins and using liquid fuel.
In one of the drawings he shows a cylindrical housing at the top of a rocket, which is probably the first (naive) drawing of a space station.
According to Todericiu, Haas has even made experiments with solid-fuel stage rockets.
Among all the geometrical and ballistic calculations, descriptions of the test and measurement techniques, Conrad Haas warns against the use for purposes of war and wants his knowledge to be used for peaceful applications.
Further details about Haas can be found in: Hans Barth, Conrad Haas - Leben und Werk in Wort und Bild, Bukarest 1983.
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Originally provided to AIAA for its Evolution of Flight Campaign, 2003.