Hypersonic Propulsion Concepts: Design, Control, Operation, and Testing – Online Short Course Online
This new 16-hour online course, instructed by experts from AIAA’s High Speed Air-Breathing Propulsion Technical Committee, will introduce participants to the most important fundamentals of the technical discipline. Starting with an introduction and theoretical background, the course will quickly move into various practical applications and concepts
- Awareness of hypersonic flight vehicle development past and present
- Knowledge of performance requirements for air-breathing hypersonic flight
- Familiarization with aerothermodynamic cycle analysis and available analysis codes
- Introduction to supersonic mixing problems
- Design and performance analysis of aerodynamics, propulsion, structures and materials
- Understanding the aerothermodynamic flight environment
- Introduction to design issues and methodology
- Understanding the role of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) including RANS, DES, LES, and DNS for hypersonic propulsion design issues
- Familiarization of ground testing and flight-testing techniques and considerations
- Detailed outline below
· Theoretical Background for High Speed Air-breathing Propulsion
Challenges associated with high speed air breathing propulsion, review of Brayton cycle (energy balance, thermal efficiency, limitations), fundamental combustion analysis (complete, equilibrium, non-equilibrium and turbulent), compression and expansion analyses including pressure and temperature ratio, adiabatic efficiency, characteristic lines as well as combined compression/combustion (detonation).
· Air-breathing Hypersonic Propulsion System Components
Aerothermodynamic analysis of ramjets and scramjets, stream thrust analysis; design and introductory performance analysis of inlets, inlet isolators, burners and nozzles.
· Air-breathing Hypersonic Propulsion Systems Cycle Analysis
Basic cycle analysis of a hypersonic vehicle; combined cycle propulsion systems, development of an integrated hypersonic engine code using the NPSS Platform, a case study on the ATREX cycle.
· Combustors and Fuels
Scramjet fuel injectors and injection system requirements. supersonic mixing fundamentals, turbulent shear-layers, compressibility effects and growth rate scaling, transverse jet in supersonic crossflow, ramp injectors, aeroramp injector, cavity-based fuel injectors, hypermixer-type injector, staged injection, mixing efficiency, the scalability challenge, mixing enhancement strategies, vortex-based fuel injection system, scramjet flowpath design.[W4] Solid fuel-based propulsion concepts such as solid-fuel ramjet (SFRJ)
· Fundamental Aerodynamics and Hypersonic Boundary Layer
Characterization of hypersonic flow, description of impact theory and comparison to CFD; discussion of low-density effects, viscous interaction, strong shock flows and high-temperature effects; Description of real-gas effects, aerodynamic heating prediction techniques, description of boundary-layer stability theory, laminar-to-turbulent transition mechanisms and state-of-the-art methods for estimating onset of transition including linear stability theory, linear and nonlinear parabolized stability equations, biglobal and triglobal stability methods as well as direct numerical simulation methods.
· Propulsion/Airframe Integration
Opportunities and challenges of hypersonic flight, Propulsion requirements and options, Forebody, inlet and nozzle design and performance considerations, Hypersonic vehicle design and propulsion integration considerations, Vehicle performance and sizing, and System design exploration and multidisciplinary design optimization.
· Airframe Structures and Thermal Management
An overview of structural material considerations necessary when beginning a new design of a high speed engine and flowpath. The session will cover high speed engine environment, handling the thermal environment, material considerations, super alloys, refractory metals and ceramic matrix composites.
· The Role of CFD Simulation, Ground & Flight Testing
Understanding the hypersonic environment, what can CFD do, wind tunnels - Mach ranges, enthalpy, test section size; flight testing - rocket boosted, air launched, horizontal takeoff; instrumentation for ground and flight testing, future test requirements.
Instructors (from the AIAA High Speed Air-Breathing Propulsion Technical Committee and Academia, in no particular order):
Prof. Jason Etele is a university professor (Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada) who has taught courses on aerospace-related material for the past fourteen years. Among his research interests he has worked on Rocket Based Combined Cycle engines, Ramjets/Scramjets, and the effects of plasmas in high speed flows. He has collaborated with the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency on air-breathing rocket research and is currently writing a textbook entitled "Transatmospheric and Space Propulsion" due out in 2021.
Mr. Tom R. Smith is a conceptual aircraft designer specializing in hypersonic air-breathing aircraft and spaceplanes. He designed the X-40, X-37A and X-37B spaceplanes. He has innovated concepts in the area of inward-turning inlets for scramjet propulsion. He has broad skills in aerodynamics, structural design, propulsion integration, and multi-disciplinary optimization.
Mr. Michael Karam is the chief functional engineer for high mach applications at Rolls-Royce. His technical skill set includes gas turbine performance and operability, conceptual cycle design, and multi-disciplinary optimization. Michael holds six patents for a range of gas turbine applications including hybrid-electric and open rotors.
Mr. Charles McNeil is the IPT Lead, R&T Capability at Libertyworks, Rolls-Royce, North America.
Dr. Faure Malo-Molina, Senior Principal Systems Engineer in the area of hypersonics at Raytheon Missile Defense, is a subject matter expert on hypersonic vehicles, air-breathing propulsion and system integration. He holds a Ph.D. in Aerospace Engineering from the Georgia Institute of Technology and has published over 50 technical articles as an expert on scramjets, pulse detonations, turbine engines, propulsion integration and chemically reacting flows. His education, along with years in research and development, allows him to contribute to groundbreaking designs and models used in fuel systems, and analyze state-of-the-art propulsion issues. Throughout his career, he has received awards in recognition for his scientific and technological advances.
Mr. Bob Moehlenkamp, Chief Engineer, Aerojet Rocketdyne, is a Chief Engineer at Aerojet Rocketdyne leading the engineering teams supporting various air-breathing hypersonic programs. He has over 30 years of experience in the design, development, and testing of gas turbine, liquid rocket, and air-breathing hypersonic propulsion systems. Primary areas of expertise include propulsion system component aerodynamic design, thermal management and performance.
Dr. Robert Baurle is the technical lead for CFD development activities within the Hypersonic Air-breathing Propulsion Branch at the NASA Langley Research Center and is the primary developer of the VULCAN-CFD package. As a senior member of the branch, Baurle also provides subject matter expertise to DoD sponsored scramjet development programs. Prior to his position at NASA, Baurle was employed at Taitech, Inc., located at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, where he was the Principal or Co-Investigator on numerous high-speed propulsion projects ranging from liquid-fueled ducted rockets to scramjet engines. Baurle currently chairs the JANNAF Simulation Credibility Panel, JANNAF Component Modeling and Simulation Panel, and has received five “Best Paper” awards at AIAA and JANNAF conferences along with two awards related to software development at NASA.
Prof. Jack Edwards is the Angel Family Professor of Aerospace Engineering and the Director of Aerospace Research at North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC. Prof. Edwards research has been focused on the development of efficient and accurate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques for conducting large scale simulations of compressible flows, reactive and multi-phase flows, and turbulence modeling. Prof. Edwards is a Fellow of the AIAA.
Dr. Kyle Thompson is a research scientist within the Aerothermodynamics Branch at NASA Langley Research Center. Dr. Thompson develops and maintains the LAURA CFD code, and his research focuses on novel and robust techniques for simulating hypersonic flows encountered in NASA Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) applications.
Dr. Chau-Lyan Chang is a senior research scientist with the Computational Aerosciences Branch at NASA Langley Research Center. His research focus is on laminar-turbulent transition and unstructured-mesh numerical simulation algorithms and software development. Dr. Chang authored the Langley Stability and Transition Analysis Code (LASTRAC) software that is widely used for instability wave prediction, laminar flow control, and transition analysis by academia as well as industry.
Mr. Eric Donovan is a thermal management system development engineer with Rolls-Royce Libertyworks. He has worked on large and small development engine demonstrator programs. He also has experience designing and building cooling equipment for high-energy applications.
Dr. John Bossard has over 25 years of experience in aerospace and advanced-technology industries and has served in technical, management and executive leadership positions for Aerojet, CFD Research, KT Engineering, and Orion Propulsion. He specializes in Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) engines, particularly the Air Turbo Rocket (ATR) cycle.