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American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

    Reference Style and Format

    Reference Style and Format

    Text Citations

    All references must be numbered and cited in numerical order in the text. Authors must reference the original source of a work, not a secondary source. Classified or export-restricted references, private communications, personal Web sites, and Web sites where there is no commitment to archiving may be mentioned parenthetically in the text or in a footnote, but should not be cited in the reference list. A reference that is not reliably available is of no use to readers. 

    Each numbered reference citation in the text is enclosed in brackets as in the following examples: 

    It is shown by Smith [4] that … 
    The effect of … should be taken into account [5]. 
    For example, see Refs. [6, 7]. 
    Further documentation can be found in [8-10]. 
    On the rare occasion when a specific page number or page range needs to accompany a citation within the text, include it within the brackets in the following manner: 

    This procedure was proposed by Gelb [11, p. 250]. 
    The solution can be found in Rogers [12, pp.14-18]. 
    When multiple author names are cited in the text, list up to two authors, as in “Walsh and Jones,” but use “et al.” with three or more authors, as in ”Walsh et al.” 

    List of References

    To avoid production delays, all references must be complete prior to acceptance of a manuscript. The following list gives examples of commonly lacking information: 

    • All authors to a reference (do not use “et al.” in the reference list)
    • Full journal or book titles and publisher names (no abbreviations)
    • Inclusive page numbers for journal articles and page or chapter numbers for books, when appropriate 
    • Journal volume and issue numbers (or months)
    • Locations of report sponsors (e.g., companies and universities)
    • Complete publishing information for proceedings (i.e., the same as for other books)

    The DOI (Digital Object Identifier) should be incorporated into every reference for which it is available. A DOI is an identifier of intellectual property entities on digital networks.DOIs provide a system for persistent identification and interoperable exchange of managed information, and they are commonly assigned to journal articles, ebooks, research reports, and data sets. The use of DOIs as identifiers makes the management of intellectual property in a network environment easy and convenient and allows the construction of automated services and transactions. For more information on DOIs and their value, visit or

    For all references: Spell out everything except AIAA, NASA, NACA, AGARD, and NATO; months may be abbreviated.

    Follow these examples for format; double-space the reference list in your manuscript: 

    Chapter in a Book

    [1] Turner, M. J., Martin, H. C., and Leible, R. C., “Further Development and Applications of Stiffness Method,” Matrix Methods of Structural Analysis, 1st ed., Vol. 1, Wiley, New York, 1963, pp. 6–10. 

    Journal Article

    [2] Johnson, J. E., Lewis, M. J., and Starkey, R. P., “Multi-Objective Optimization of Earth-Entry Vehicle Heat Shields,” Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. 49, No. 1, 2012, pp. 38–50. [Note: Month acceptable if number is not available.] 

    doi: xx.xxxx/x.xxxxx 

    or (if published only electronically and not yet available in a particular journal issue):

    [2] Alyanak, E. J., and Pendleton, E., “Aeroelastic Tailoring and Active Aeroelastic Wing Impact on a Lambda Wing Configuration,” Journal of Aircraft, published online 10 Nov. 2016. 

    doi: xx.xxxx/x.xxxxx 

    Journal Article Not Yet Published

    [3] Devasia, S., and Lee, A., “Scalable Low-Cost Unmanned-Aerial-Vehicle Traffic Network,” Journal of Air Transportation (not yet published).

    Update the publication status of unpublished works at the author proof stage.

    Proceedings/Transactions Articles

    [4] Blottner, F. G., “Prediction of Electron Density in the Boundary Layer of Entry Vehicles with Ablation,” The Entry Plasma Sheath and Its Effects on Space Vehicle Electromagnetic Systems, NASA SP-252, Vol. 1, Oct. 1970, pp. 219–240.

    [5] Wirin, W. B., “Space Debris 1989,” Proceedings of the Thirty-Second Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, AIAA, Washington, DC, 1990, pp. 184–196.


    Company or NASA Report

    [6] Bhutta, B. A., and Lewis, C. H., “PNS Predictions of External/Internal Hypersonic Flows for NASP Propulsion Applications,” VRA, Inc., VRA-TR-90-01, Blacksburg, VA, June 1990.

    [7] Miner, E. W., and Lewis, C. H., “Hypersonic Ionizing Air Viscous Shock-Layer Flows over Nonanalytic Blunt Bodies,” NASA CR-2550, May 1975.

    Meeting Paper 

    [8] Neifeld, A., and Ewert, R., “Jet Mixing Noise from Single Stream Jets using Stochastic Source Modeling,” AIAA Paper 2011-2700, June 2011.

    [9]  Hobbs, D. E., “Experimental Investigation of Compressor Cascade Wakes,” American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Paper 82-GT-299, April 1982.

    Update meeting paper references if they have been published in a journal.

    AIAA Book Series

    [10]     Sutton, K., “Air Radiation Revisited,” Thermal Design of Aeroassisted Orbital Transfer Vehicles, edited by H. F. Nelson, Vol. 96, Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, AIAA, New York, 1985, pp. 419–441.

    Electronic Media

    [11] von Hippel, T., “Contribution of White Dwarfs to Cluster Masses,” Astronomical Journal [online], Vol. 114, No. 4, 1998, pp. 1536–1542, [Include the URL when no DOI is available.] 

    [12] Richard, J. C., and Fralick, G. C., “Use of Drag Probe in Supersonic Flow,”  [CD-ROM], Vol. 1, No. 2, Disc 1, AIAA, Reston, VA, 1996. [13] Vickers, A., “10–110 mm/hr Hypodermic Gravity Design A,”  [online database],  [retrieved 15 March 1998]. [Include access or retrieval date when an online source is not dated.]

    Anonymous Report

    [14] “Equations, Tables, and Charts for Compressible Flow,” NACA Rept. 1135, 1953. [Note: Include month if available.]